Experienced DUI Defense Attorney Contact Us Today to Move Forward with Your Case

Refusal Enhancement

California Vehicle Code sections 23577 and 23612 - CALCRIM 2131

If you find the defendant guilty of (causing injury while driving under the influence/ [or] [the lesser offense of] driving under the influence), you must then decide whether the People have proved the additional allegation that the defendant willfully refused to (submit to/ [or] complete) a chemical test to determine ((his/her) blood alcohol content/ [or] whether (he/she) had consumed a drug).

To prove this allegation, the People must prove that:

1. A peace officer asked the defendant to submit to a chemical test to determine ((his/her) blood alcohol content/ [or] whether (he/she) had consumed a drug);

2. The peace officer fully advised the defendant of the requirement to submit to a test and the consequences of not submitting to a test;

[AND]

3. The defendant willfully refused to (submit to a test/ [or] to complete the test)(./;)

[AND]

4. The peace officer lawfully arrested the defendant and had reasonable cause to believe that defendant was driving a motor vehicle in violation of Vehicle Code section 23140, 23152, or 23153.]

To have fully advised the defendant, the peace officer must have told (him/her) all of the following information:

1. (He/She) may choose a blood(,/ or) breath[, or urine] test; [if (he/she) completes a breath test, (he/she) may also be required to submit to a blood [or urine] test to determine if (he/she) had consumed a drug;] [if only one test is available, (he/she) must complete the test available;] [if (he/she) is not able to complete the test chosen, (he/she) must submit to (the other/another) test;]

2. (He/She) does not have the right to have an attorney present before saying whether (he/she) will submit to a test, before deciding which test to take, or during administration of a test;

3. If (he/she) refuses to submit to a test, the refusal may be used against (him/her) in court;

4. Failure to submit to or complete a test will result in a fine and mandatory imprisonment if (he/she) is convicted of driving under the influence or with a blood alcohol level of 0.08 percent or more;

AND

5. Failure to submit to or complete a test will result in suspension of (his/her) driving privilege for one year or revocation of (his/her) driving privilege for two or three years.

<Short Alternative; see Bench Notes>

[(His/Her) driving privilege will be revoked for two or three years if (he/she) has previously been convicted of one or more specific offenses related to driving under the influence or if (his/her) driving privilege has previously been suspended or revoked.]

<Long Alternative; see Bench Notes>

[A. (His/Her) driving privilege will be revoked for two years if (he/she) has been convicted within the previous (seven/ten) years of a separate violation of Vehicle Code section 23140, 23152, 23153, or 23103 as specified in section 23103.5, or of Penal Code section 191.5 or 192(c)(3). (His/Her) driving privilege will also be revoked for two years if (his/her) driving privilege has been suspended or revoked under Vehicle Code section 13353, 13353.1, or 13353.2 for an offense that occurred on a separate occasion within the previous (seven/ten) years;

AND

B. (His/Her) driving privilege will be revoked for three years if (he/she) has been convicted within the previous (seven/ten) years of two or more of the offenses just listed. (His/Her) driving privilege will also be revoked for three years if (his/her) driving privilege was previously suspended or revoked on two occasions, or if (he/she) has had any combination of two convictions, suspensions, or revocations, on separate occasions, within the previous (seven/ten) years.]

[Vehicle Code section 23140 prohibits a person under the age of 21 from driving with a blood alcohol content of 0.05 percent or more. Vehicle Code section 23152 prohibits driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs or driving with a blood alcohol level of 0.08 percent or more. Vehicle Code section 23153 prohibits causing injury while driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs or causing injury while driving with a blood alcohol level of 0.08 percent or more. Vehicle Code section 23103 as specified in section 23103.5 prohibits reckless driving involving alcohol. Penal Code section 191.5 prohibits gross vehicular manslaughter while intoxicated, and Penal Code section 192(c)(3) prohibits vehicular manslaughter while intoxicated.]

Someone commits an act willfully when he or she does it willingly or on purpose. It is not required that he or she intend to break the law, hurt someone else, or gain any advantage.

[A person employed as a police officer by __________ <insert name of agency that employs police officer> is a peace officer.]

[A person employed by __________ <insert name of agency that employs peace officer, e.g., "the Department of Fish and Game"> is a peace officer if __________ <insert description of facts necessary to make employee a peace officer, e.g, "designated by the director of the agency as a peace officer">.]

The People have the burden of proving beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant willfully refused to (submit to/ [or] complete) a chemical test to determine ((his/her) blood alcohol content/ [or] whether (he/she) had consumed a drug). If the People have not met this burden, you must find this allegation has not been proved.

Why Choose Our Firm?

Attorney Robert Tayac Puts a Long, Decorated Career to Work for You
  • Puts Over 20 Years of Experience Toward Your Case

  • Specialized Education in DUI Defense

  • Has Trained Other Attorneys in San Francisco

  • Former San Francisco Police Officer & Police Inspector

  • Certified by the SFPD on the Intoxilyzer 5000 Testing Device

  • Co-Authored the 4th Edition of California Drunk Driving Defense

  • Boasts a Successful Record Achieving the Best Result for His Clients

  • Takes the Time to Understand You & Your Case

Client Testimonials

  • “...you achieved for me an outcome exceeding what is typical for Santa Clara County.”

    E.S.

  • “If you have a "must win," "zero sum" case and are willing to pay for his services, Robert Tayac may just be the very best DUI trial lawyer in Northern California.”

    N.D.

  • “You made me feel confident and reassured that all aspects of my case were being handled in a professional and efficient manner.”

    C.M.

  • “He's professional, honors his promises, and gets excellent results for all his clients.”

    D.W.

  • “Very professional and has a great human element that many lawyers don't have.”

    Former Client

Contact Us Today

Your Strong Defense Starts with a Case Evaluation
  • Please enter your name.
  • This isn't a valid phone number.
  • Please enter your email address.
    This isn't a valid email address.
  • Please make a selection.
  • Please enter a message.